Robert Paxton

  • B.Sc. in Biological Sciences (1980) University of Sussex, UK
  • Ph.D. (1985) University of Sussex, UK
  • Habilitation in Zoology 2000 University of Tübingen, Germany

Institutional Affiliation

Institute of Biology, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Germany


School of Biological Sciences, Queen’s University Belfast, UK

Research Interests

  • honey bees
  • wild bees
  • bee pathology
  • population genetics
  • pollination


Contribution to COLOSS

MC member for UK

Member of working group 2

Research Area in COLOSS

Honey bee pathology

List of Publications

  • Paxton, R.J., Fries, I., Pieniazek, N.J. & Tengö, J. 1997. High incidence of infection of an undescribed microsporidium (Microspora) in the communal bee Andrena scotica (Hymenoptera, Andrenidae). Apidologie 28, 129-141.
  • Fries, I., Paxton, R.J., Tengö, J., Slemenda, S.B., da Silva, A.J. & Pieniazek, N.J. 1999. Morphological and molecular characterization of Antonospora scoticae n.gen., n. sp. (Protozoa, Microsporidia) a parasite of the communal bee, Andrena scotica Perkins, 1916 (Hymenoptera, Andrenidae). European Journal of Protistology 35, 183-193.
  •  Fries, I., de Ruijter, A., Paxton, R.J., da Silva, A.J., Slemenda, S.B. & Pieniazek, N.J. 2001. Molecular characterization ofNosema bombi (Microsporidia: Nosematidae) and a note on its sites of infection in Bombus terrestris (Hymenoptera: Apoidea). Journal of Apicultural Research 40: 91-96.
  •  Garrido, C., Rosenkranz, P., Paxton, R.J. & Gonçalves, L.S. 2003. Temporal changes in Varroa destructor fertility and haplotype in Brazil. Apidologie 34: 535-541
  • Tay, W.T., O’Mahony, E. & Paxton, R.J. 2005. Complete rRNA gene sequences reveal that the Microsporidium Nosema bombi infects diverse bumble bee (Bombus spp.) hosts, yet contains multiple polymorphic sites. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 52: 505-513.Klee, J., Tay, W.T. & Paxton, R.J. 2006. Specific and sensitive detection of Nosema bombi (Microsporidia: Nosematidae) in bumble bees (Bombus spp.; Hymenoptera: Apidae) by PCR of partial rRNA gene sequences. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 91: 98-104.
  • O’Mahony, E., Tay, W.T. & Paxton, R.J. 2007. Multiple rRNA variants in a single spore of the Microsporidian Nosema bombiJournal of Eukaryotic Microbiology54: 103-109.
  • Fitzpatrick, Ú., Murray, T.E., Paxton, R.J., Breen, J., Cotton, D., Santorum, V. & Brown, M.J.F. 2007. Rarity and decline in bumblebees – a test of causes and correlates in the Irish fauna. Biological Conservation136: 185-194.
  • Klee, J., Besana, A.M., Genersch, E., Gisder, S., Nanetti, A., Tam, D.Q., Chinh, T.X., Puerta, F., Ruz, J.M., Kryger, P., Message, D., Hatjina, F., Korpela, S., Fries, I. & Paxton, R.J. 2007. Widespread dispersal of the microsporidian Nosema ceranae, an emergent pathogen of the western honey bee, Apis melliferaJournal of Invertebrate Pathology96: 1-10.
  • Fitzpatrick, Ú., Murray, T.E., Paxton, R.J. & Brown, M.J.F. 2007. Building on IUCN regional red lists to produce lists of species of conservation priority: a model with Irish bees. Conservation Biology21: 1324-1332.
  • Paxton, R.J., Klee, J., Korpela, S. & Fries, I. 2007. Nosema ceranae has infected Apis mellifera in Europe since at least 1998 and may be more virulent than Nosema apisApidologie38: 558-565.
  • Murray, T.E., Fitzpatrick, Ú., Brown, M.J.F. & Paxton, R.J. 2008. Cryptic species diversity in a widespread bumble bee complex revealed using mitochondrial DNA RFLPs. Conservation Genetics9: 653-666.
  • Brown, M.J.F. & Paxton, R.J. 2009. The conservation of bees: a global perspective. Apidologie 40: 410-416.
  • Paxton, R.J. 2010. Does infection by Nosema ceranae cause “Colony Collapse Disorder” in honey bees (Apis mellifera)?Journal of Apicultural Research 49: 80-84.
  • Jaffé, R., Dietemann, V., Allsopp, M.H., Costa, C., Crewe, R.M., Dall’Olio, R., De la Rúa, P., El-Niweiri, M.A.A., Fries, I., Kenzic, N., Meusel, M.S., Paxton, R.J., Shaibi, T., Stolle, E. & Moritz, R.F.A. 2010. Estimating the density of honeybee colonies across their natural range to fill the gap in pollinator decline censuses. Conservation Biology 24: 583-593.
  • Moritz, R.F.A., de Miranda, J.R., Fries, I., Le Conte, Y. & Paxton, R.J. 2010. Research strategies to improve honeybee health in Europe. Apidologie 41: 227-242.
  • Vásquez, A., Forsgren, E., Fries, I., Paxton, R.J., Flaberg, E., Szekely, L. & Olofsson, T.C. 2012. Symbionts as major modulators of insect health: Lactic Acid Bacteria and honeybees. PLoS ONE 7: e33188.
  • Carolan, J. C., Murray, T.E., Fitzpatrick, Ú., Crossley, J., Schmidt, H., Cederberg, B.,  McNally, L., Paxton, R.J., Williams, P.H. &  Brown, M.J.F. 2012. Colour patterns do not diagnose species: quantitative evaluation of a DNA barcoded cryptic bumblebee complex. PLoS ONE 7: e29251.
  • Yañez, O., Jaffé, R., Jarosch, A., Fries, I., Moritz, R.F.A., Paxton, R.J. & de Miranda, J.R. 2012. Deformed wing virus and drone mating in the honey bee (Apis mellifera): implications for sexual transmission of a major honey bee virus. Apidologie43: 17-30

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *